Allen, J W; 1980; Survey of the Archaeological Monuments of Papa Stour, Shetland

Ballin Smith, B; 2005; The Papar Project: Papa Stour 2004 GUARD DSR

Ballantyne, J and Smith, B eds; 1994; Shetland Documents: 1580-1611; Lerwick, Shetland Times/Shetland Museum

Ballantyne, J and Smith, B eds ; 1999; Shetland Documents: 1195-1597;  Lerwick, Shetland Times/Shetland Museum

Barclay, R S, ed; 1962; The Court Book of Orkney and Shetland 1612-1613, Kirkwall

Brand, J; 1701; A Brief Description of Orkney, Zetland, Pightland-Firth and Caithness, Edinburgh

Crawford, B; 1979; ‘The Shetland lawthing seal’, New Shetlander, no. 127, 1989; ‘Papa Stour: Survival, Continuity and Change in One Shetland Island. In Fenton, Alexander & Hermann Palsoon The Northern and Western Isles in the Viking World: Survival, Continuity, and Change. Edinbrugh, John Donald Publishers

Coolen, J and Mehler, N; 2010; TAP field report 1:  Geophysical Survey at Tingwall, Shetland (accessed 01/10/10)

Coolen, J and Mehler, N; 2010; TAP field report 2: Geophysical Survey at Housa Voe, Papa Stour, Shetland  (accessed 01/02/11)

Donaldson, G, ed; 1954;The Court Book of Shetland 1602-1604, Edinburgh

Edmondston, A; 1809; View of the Ancient and Present State of the Zetland Islands

Fellows-Jensen, Gillian; 1996; ’Tingwall:The Significance of the Name’, in Doreen Waugh (ed), Shetland’s Northern Links: Language and History, Edinburgh

Fladby, R; 1980; ‘Attung’ (Norway) Kulturhistorisk Leksikon for Nordisk Middelalder

Goudie, G; 1891-2; ‘The fouds, lawrightmen, and ranselmen of Shetland parishes’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 26,

Greig, P W; 1892; Annals of a Shetland Parish: Delting. Harvard, C & A Sandison

Hibbert, S; 1822; A Description of the Shetland Islands, Edinburgh

Hibbert, S; 1832; “Memoir on the Tings of Orkney and Shetland” [read 1823], Archaeologia Scotica volume 3

Imson, S; 2002; Tingwall and Local Community Power in Shetland during the Reign of Håkon Magnusson, Duke and King. In B. E. Crawford (ed.), Papa Stour and 1299. Commemorating the 700th anniversary of Shetland’s first document. 59-81 Lerwick.

Irvine, J T; n.d; Miscellaneous literary collections, mainly unclassified, preserved in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland

Jakobsen, J; 1897; The Dialect and Place Names of Shetland: two popular lectures, Lerwick

Jakobsen, J; 1936; The Place-Names of Shetland, London and Copenhagen

Keyser, R and Munch, PA, eds; 1846; Norges Gamle Love indtil 1378, 1, Christiania.

Keyser, R and Munch, P A, eds; 1848; Norges Gamle Love indtil 1378, 2, Christiania.

Lárusson, M M; 1981; ‘Fjerding’ (Norway), Kulturhistorisk Leksikon for Nordisk Middelalder,

Low, A Tour through the Islands of Orkney and Schetland, Kirkwall 1879

Lowe, Christopher E; 1987; Early ecclesiastical sites in the northern isles and Isle of Man : an archaeological field survey

Matras C, ed; 1971; Seyðabrævið, Tórshavn

Morris, C D andBrady, K; 1998; Unst Chapel Survey 1997.  GUARD Data Structure Report 515

Nicolson, J R; 1975; Shetland, Newton Abbot

OS Namebook 1968

RCAHMS; 1946; The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Twelfth report with an inventory of the ancient monuments of Orkney and Shetland, 3v Edinburgh.

Smith, B; 2006; ‘Gibbets and gallows: rough justice in Shetland, 800-1700’,

Smith, B; 2009; On the nature of tings: Shetland’s law courts in the middle ages until 1611. New Shetlander.  no 250.

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Turner, V; 1998; Ancient Shetland. Batsford, Historic Scotland


Udal Law

Drever, W. P; 1914; Udal Law in the Orkneys and Zetland, William Green and Sons, Edinburgh.

Robberstad, K. ND.  Udal Law. Unpub. Manuscript.

Ryder, J. 1988 Udal Law: An Introduction Northern Studies XXV 1-20

Smith, T.B 1964. The St. Ninians Isle Treasure – A Legal Riddle of the Acta Juridica  187-199     

Stewart, J. Udal Law and Government in Shetland in W. Douglas Simpson (ed) The Viking Congress London: Oliver and Boyd. 

Encyclopedia of the Laws of Scotland (1st and Revised Editions).  Section on Udal Law.